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時間:2022-08-15 來源:本站 點擊:258次
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双语热点:世上首个活体机器人 如今可自我繁殖******

数十亿年来,生物体为了延续生命,已经进化出多种繁衍方式。近日,美国佛蒙特大学和塔夫茨大学的研究团队发现了一种全新的生物繁殖方式,并利用这一发现创造了有史以来第一个可自我繁殖的活体机器人——Xenobots 3.0,未来或可为外伤、先天缺陷、癌症、衰老等提供更直接、更个性化的药物治疗。

World's first living robots can now reproduce, scientists say

The US scientists who created the first living robots say the life forms, known as xenobots, can now reproduce -- and in a way not seen in plants and animals.

创造第一个活体机器人的美国科学家说,这种被称为“爪蟾机器人”(xenobots)的生命体,现已可以繁殖——以一种与植物和动物都不同的方式。

Formed from the stem cells of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) from which it takes its name, xenobots are less than a millimeter (0.04 inches) wide. The tiny blobs were first unveiled in 2020 after experiments showed that they could move, work together in groups and self-heal.

“爪蟾机器人”由非洲爪蟾(Xenopus laevis)的干细胞组成,它的名字由此而来,其宽度不到一毫米。在实验表明它们可以移动、集体合作和自我修复后,这些微团型机器人于2020年首次亮相。

Now the scientists that developed them at the University of Vermont, Tufts University and Harvard University's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering said they have discovered an entirely new form of biological reproduction different from any animal or plant known to science.

现在,创造这些“爪蟾机器人”的佛蒙特大学、塔夫茨大学和哈佛大学怀斯生物启发工程研究所的科学家表示,他们发现了一种全新的生物繁殖形式,不同于科学上已知的任何动物或植物。

"I was astounded by it," said Michael Levin, a professor of biology and director of the Allen Discovery Center at Tufts University who was co-lead author of the new research.

共同主导这项新研究的科学家,塔夫茨大学生物学教授兼艾伦探索中心主任迈克尔·莱文(Michael Levin)说:“我对此感到震惊。”

"Frogs have a way of reproducing that they normally use but when you ... liberate (the cells) from the rest of the embryo and you give them a chance to figure out how to be in a new environment, not only do they figure out a new way to move, but they also figure out apparently a new way to reproduce."

“青蛙有一种它们通常使用的繁殖方式,但是当你……从胚胎的其余部分释放(细胞),你给它们一个机会去弄清楚如何在一个新环境中生存,它们不仅会找到一种新的移动方式,而且它们显然也发展出了一种新的繁殖方式。”

Robot or organism?

是机器人还是生物?

Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the ability to develop into different cell types. To make the xenobots, the researchers scraped living stem cells from frog embryos and left them to incubate. There's no manipulation of genes involved.

干细胞是具有发育成不同细胞类型的能力的非特化细胞。为了制造“爪蟾机器人”,研究人员从青蛙胚胎中提取了活干细胞,并让它们孵化。过程中不涉及基因操纵。

"Most people think of robots as made of metals and ceramics but it's not so much what a robot is made from but what it does, which is act on its own on behalf of people," said Josh Bongard, a computer science professor and robotics expert at the University of Vermont and lead author of the study, "In that way it's a robot but it's also clearly an organism made from genetically unmodified frog cell."

“大多数人会认为机器人是由金属和陶瓷制成的,但与其讨论机器人是由什么制成的,不如讨论它的作用是什么,它代表人类的自主行动。”佛蒙特大学电脑科学教授和机器人专家,也是该研究主要作者的乔西·邦加德(Josh Bongard)说:“从这个意义上说,它是一个机器人,但它显然也是一个由未经基因改造的青蛙细胞制成的有机体。”

Bongard said they found that the xenobots, which were initially sphere-shaped and made from around 3,000 cells, could replicate. But it happened rarely and only in specific circumstances. The xenobots used "kinetic replication" -- a process that is known to occur at the molecular level but has never been observed before at the scale of whole cells or organisms, Bongard said.

邦加德说,他们发现,最初是球形、由大约3000个细胞组成的“爪蟾机器人”,可以自我复制。但这很罕见,而且只在特定情况下发生。他说,“爪蟾机器人”使用了“动力学复制”——这一过程已知发生在分子水平,但以前从未在整个细胞或生物体的规模上观察到过。

With the help of artificial intelligence, the researchers then tested billions of body shapes to make the xenobots more effective at this type of replication. The supercomputer came up with a C-shape that resembled Pac-Man, the 1980s video game. They found it was able to find tiny stem cells in a petri dish, gather hundreds of them inside its mouth, and a few days later the bundle of cells became new xenobots.

在人工智能的帮助下,研究人员随后测试了数十亿种体型,以使“爪蟾机器人”在这种类型的复制中更有效。这台超级电脑最终设计出了一个类似于80年代电子游戏中吃豆人(Pac-Man)的C形状。他们发现,它能够在培养皿中找到微小的干细胞,将数百个干细胞聚集到它的嘴里,几天后,这束细胞变成了新的“爪蟾机器人”。

"The AI didn't program these machines in the way we usually think about writing code. It shaped and sculpted and came up with this Pac-Man shape," Bongard said.

"人工智能并没有按照我们通常认为的编写代码方式,对这些机器进行编程。它塑造和雕刻并发展了这种吃豆人形状。"

"The shape is, in essence, the program. The shape influences how the xenobots behave to amplify this incredibly surprising process."

邦加德说:“从本质上来说,形状就是程序。形状会影响‘爪蟾机器人’的行为,以放大这一令人难以置信、令人惊讶的过程。”

The xenobots are very early technology -- think of a 1940s computer -- and don't yet have any practical applications. However, this combination of molecular biology and artificial intelligence could potentially be used in a host of tasks in the body and the environment, according to the researchers. This may include things like collecting microplastics in the oceans, inspecting root systems and regenerative medicine.

“爪蟾机器人”仍处于非常早期的技术——就像40年代的电脑——还没有任何实际应用。然而,研究人员表示,这种分子生物学和人工智能的结合,有可能用于身体和环境中的许多任务。这可能包括收集海洋中的微塑料、检查根系和再生医学等。

While the prospect of self-replicating biotechnology could spark concern, the researchers said that the living machines were entirely contained in a lab and easily extinguished, as they are biodegradable and regulated by ethics experts.

虽然自我复制生物技术的前景可能会引起人们的担忧,但研究人员表示,这些活体机器人完全控制在实验室中,很容易销毁,因为它们是可生物降解的,并受到伦理专家的监管。

"There are many things that are possible if we take advantage of this kind of plasticity and ability of cells to solve problems," Bongard said. The study was published in the peer-reviewed scientific journal PNAS on Monday.

邦加德说:“如果我们利用细胞的这种可塑性和解决问题的能力,有很多事情会变得可能。”该研究于周一发表在受同行评审的科学期刊《美国国家科学院院刊》。

关羽守华容道是诸葛亮的一个大阴谋******

原标题:关羽守华容道是诸葛亮的一个大阴谋

《三国演义》中,记载“曹瞒兵败走华容,正与关公狭路逢。只为当初恩义重,放开金锁走蛟龙”。是说曹操赤壁之战大败后,被迫败走华容道,遇到诸葛亮的三路伏兵。关羽为报恩,放曹操逃出了华容道的故事。可是,能掐会算的诸葛亮怎么会料不到知恩图报、义重如山的关羽因为昔日之情会放走曹操呢?答案应该是孔明军师故意为之。可既然如此,为什么非要立下军令状呢?他是存心想要关羽的一条性命吗?答案自然非也。其实诸葛亮派关羽埋伏华容道最后一关,颇有深意。

诸葛亮夜观天象,曹操命不该绝,就是说在他认为派谁去,都会失败的。再者曹操逃离华容道,日后三国鼎立的局面,对于刘备也是非常有利的。所以他不在乎放走曹操的结果,而是在乎放走曹操的人。关羽,武功盖世,一夫当关万夫莫开,派他去,而且埋伏最后一关表面上看也算是顺理成章的事。

再者诸葛亮想借此让关羽还了曹操昔日的恩情。关羽在曹营时曾受过曹操大恩,杀颜良诛文丑虽然算但是也抵不了过五关斩六将。让关羽立马华容道,完全有能力将曹操一网打尽的情况下,选择放了曹操,那便还了曹操大大的恩情,甚至于曹操都欠关羽的。从长远来看,诸葛亮也是想借此机会让关羽完完全全地报答曹操的恩情,难免以后遇到的时候手软,误了刘备的大事。

可是为什么要立军令状呢?应该说这里面含着诸葛亮的一点私心,他要真正降伏关羽。诸葛亮辅佐刘备之后,关羽实际上就没有真正服过诸葛亮。所以不到万不得已,诸葛亮是不敢轻易动用这位二爷的。非要关羽出兵的时候,也总得动用点计谋,甚至还需要有刘备坐镇。关羽是众将之首,又和主公刘备有兄弟情谊,属于位高权重之人,关羽若不听指挥,那么张飞便难以驯服,更难以真正号令三军。所以诸葛亮一直在等待和寻找着降伏关羽的机会。此番曹操兵败,雄才大略的诸葛亮,算准了曹操一定会取道华容道,更算准了义薄云天的关羽一定会放走曹操的。于是,他故意使用激将法迫使关羽立下了军令状,这样他就能在关羽放走曹操之后,拿军令状“讨个说法”了。

结果就如诸葛亮所料,关羽果然放了曹操,按照军令,是当问斩的。结果众人求情,诸葛亮法外开恩,饶了关羽性命。但此事不仅挫伤了关羽的锐气,还令关羽倍加感念军师不杀之恩。诸葛亮用一计阴招,轻而易举地降伏了关羽,也就降伏了张飞,号令三军自然也不在话下了。

再者,关羽毕竟是刘备的结义二弟,兄弟手足情深。此番刘备俯身相求,诸葛亮不仅用事实再一次在主公面前证实了自己的才华,为其以后独立进行排兵布阵扫清了障碍,还让主公刘备也因此欠了他人情。

诸葛亮派关羽立马华容道,可谓一石数鸟,布了一个很大的局。

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渝西高铁2022年底前全线开工建设!西安至重庆3钟头可达******

  重庆市人大常委第二十九次大会信息,渝西高铁(重庆至西安)将争取于2022年底前全程动工基本建设。新项目完工后,重庆将完成3钟头中国联通西安、6钟头到达北京市的总体目标。

  据统计,渝西高铁分东、西两条道路,东线为西康—城口—达州—达州—重庆,东线为樊哙—开州—江津(对接渝万高铁联接重庆),取分点明确为四川达州宣汉县樊哙镇。新项目约长537千米,在其中东线约长447千米、东线约长90千米,总投资约1210亿人民币。重庆地区约长170千米,投资总额约440亿人民币。方案基本建设施工期为6年。

  渝西高铁西安至安康段已前期动工基本建设,安康至重庆段已经加速前期工作工作中。现阶段,重庆已经争取国家国家发改委、国铁集团适用,争取2021年12月审批新项目可研报告。正加速相关工作进展,争取2022年底前全程动工基本建设。

  渝西高铁跨过重庆、四川、陕西省三地。,是国家“八纵八横”高铁动车安全通道网里京昆、包(银)海安全通道的关键构成部分,也是成渝地区双城区经济带连接古丝绸之路城镇群、中国联通京津冀一体化协作发展趋势区的关键高铁动车安全通道。

  2016年全国各地两会召开,重庆访问团在团中提议中明确提出将重庆至西安高铁动车列入国家“十三五”整体规划。接着,渝西高铁被列入国家《中长期铁路网规划》。


来源于:陕西发布。

编写:王蜀周秦。

Chinese striker Wu Lei eyeing victory in WC qualifier against Oman******

SHARJAH, UAE, Nov. 8 (Xinhua) -- China's national soccer team on Monday welcomed back its star forward Wu Lei in Sharjah, the UAE for its upcoming World Cup Asian qualifier against Oman here on Thursday.。

The Espanyol forward Wu participated in the training only hours after he arrived at the hotel from Spain in the early morning on Monday.。

"I want to score goals and help the team beat Oman," Wu said.。

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, China's two home fixtures against Oman and Australia have been moved to Sharjah, where the Chinese team clinched four consecutive wins in the qualifying campaign and Wu contributed five goals.。

"The home advantage is very important and the support from our fans could be very helpful for us. Obviously it's very disappointing that we can't play at home, but the only thing in our mind is to play the matches well. Sharjah is a lucky place for me [as I scored many goals here]," Wu noted.。

China, drawn into Group B of the final qualifying round with Australia, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Oman and Vietnam, now ranks fifth in the group with only three points after four games. Wu's team has to beat Oman to keep its faint World Cup dream alive.。

"Our team is under great pressure recently. I think we all can deal with the stress well as professional players. We need to focus on ourselves and do the right things. It's not the time to talk about the group table. No matter which opponent we face, we must fight for a win," he added. Enditem。

未扫场所码、野泳戏水?这些都逃不过无人机的“法眼”!

1.海南三亚多措并举 保障生活物资储备供应

2.女星车祸昏迷六天宣告脑死亡 家属决定拔管捐器官

3.艰难达成共识,欧盟同意对俄石油“动刀”,影响几何?

4.解放军总医院第三医学中心为官兵开启5G远程超声诊疗服务

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